If society did not employ police, investigators, prosecutors, lawyers, and judges, such monetary resources and manpower could be put to a more positive use in an area like health or technology. Currently, many drugs are deemed criminal while others are perfectly legal, socially accepted, and regularly prescribed by medical professionals.
However, there also crimes which are not motivated by financial gain, which are also called non- utilitarian crimes. According to functionalist theory, society is like an organism with all organizations, institutions, and other components — each with their own functions — working together.
This could be explained in terms of the self fulfilling prophecy. Functionalism, the structural consensus sociological theory is a key theory that was developed by Emile Durkheim, one of the founding fathers of sociology.
With urbanization and industrialization, informal relations weaken, and laws emerge to specify gender-kinship responsibilities.
They compare society to a human body where everything is useful and needed. Capitalism creates inequalities which lead to conflict. Marxists believe that norms of society are influenced by economic factors, however, functionalists argue that it is the norms that determine the structure of society.
Functionalism believes that social change is evolutionary, in other words, slowly and gradually. It changes in a consensus and peaceful way. The sociologist Phil Cohen uses Marxist subcultural theory to explain crime and deviance amongst young, white working class males. Marxist theory views crime as the result of conflict between the social and economic classes.
In this essay, the similarities and differences will be compared and contrasted.
The immediate origins of the deviant act Why does the person commit the act? Another key concept in Functionalism and Marxism can be compared which is the theory of social equilibrium by Talcott Parsons and the theory of dialectical materialism by Joseph Dietzgen.
Labelling as a cause for criminal behaviour. Furthermore, Functionalism and Marxism are sociological theories developed in Europe. Difficult to imagine a political motive underpinning crimes such as domestic violence, rape and child abuse.
Differences Marxists see society as having a material structure and emphasises economic determinism whereas functionalism sees society as based on shared culture and emphasises cultural determinism.
Marxists believe that norms of society are influenced by economic factors, however, functionalists argue that it is the norms that determine the structure of society.
The wider origins of the deviant act Structural relationships and inequalities within capitalist society determine origins of deviance i. Share the Marxists aim of communist society, but argue that liberty and diversity are also crucial. Marxism emphasis socialisation into a capitalist society only benefits the ruling class.
Greed, selfishness and want are associated with capitalism, and it is these which lead people to committing crime.There are many theories on why crime exists as well has who is committing the crimes and the underlying reasons behind it The two main perspectives being Traditional Marxist and Functionalist both with different views they share very little in common, however they do agree that society shapes the individual and not the individual that shapes society.
Criticisms of the Functionalist View of Society Posted on December 15, by Karl Thompson The question below is a possible 10 mark question for the AQA’s Crime and Deviance with Theory and Methods paper (paper 3).
Marxist, Functionalist and Subcultural perspectives of crime (part 1) The two main broad perspectives that explain crime are Marxism and functionalism. Each covers a range of theories and explanations such as subcultural theory in both Marxism and functionalism, and status frustration in functionalism.
Marxism Marxism and neo- Marxism derive from Karl Marx. Neo-Marxism is the term used to describe the continuing tradition of writing according to the philosophy [ ] Read More. Published: Mon, 5 Dec For this sociology essay I shall be researching and comparing three social perspective theories on crime, Marxism, Functionalism, and Feminism.
Just like functionalism, Marxism is a macro theory based on society as a whole and on a large scale.
Marxists believe in ruling ideology. This means society is unequal and is split into different groups divided by class, wealth and social status rather than the consensus and conformity of the functionalist view.Download